Abstract of the Project: Neutrino flavor oscillations have been established beyond doubt by a number of outstanding results from atmospheric, solar, reactor and accelerator neutrino experiments. Neutrino flavor oscillations require neutrinos to be massive and mixed, thus they give the first unambiguous hint about physics beyond the standard model of elementary particles. The neutrino mixing matrix called UPMNS can be parameterized in terms of three mixing angles, θ12, θ13, θ23 and a charge parity violating (CP) phase δCP. The frequencies of neutrino oscillations are governed by two mass squared differences, ∆m212 and ∆m312, where we define ∆mij2 = mi2 – mj2. The solar neutrino oscillation parameters θ12 and ∆m212 have been measured from the combined analysis of KamLAND reactor data and solar neutrino data. The atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameter θ23 and |∆m312| are mostly constrained by the Super-Kamiokande (SK) atmospheric, and MINOS as well as T2K disappearance data. The third and last mixing angle θ13 is the latest to be measured by a series of accelerator and reactor experiments. Accelerator based neutrino experiments T2K and MINOS have both observed appearance events from a beam of that indicates a non-zero value of θ13.
While experiments continue to improve precision on the mixing angle θ13, the focus has now somewhat shifted to the determination of other unknown parameters in the neutrino sector, such as determination of the sign of ∆m312. This has crucial importance, since its knowledge is essential for constructing the mass spectrum of neutrinos. This sign can be extracted via the detection of earth matter effects in atmospheric and accelerator-based neutrino beams. One of the proposed detectors aiming to observe earth matter effects in atmospheric neutrinos is the Iron CALorimeter (ICAL) at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). The main physics objective of ICAL is the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy through the observation of earth matter effects in atmospheric neutrinos. The proposed work aims to look at the following: